Factors Affecting Hotel Sustainability
Peyman kiani falavarjani1*, Parisa biria
Architecture sustainability is one of the most underlying principles of the new century for each sustainable building. Increasing growth of cities and increased range of the air pollutants has endangered the environment and human health. This issue can gain attention of the designers and architects and an issue emphasized here is sustainable architecture. Architecture, based on logical principles and foundations, tends to prevent destruction of the environment and decreased consumption of fossil fuels and renewable energy resources, which can lead to decreased amount of environmental pollutants. Therefore, it can be reasonable response to the existing constructions with high energy consumption, so that useful step can be taken using renewable energy resources and observance of sustainable architecture principles, which are in line with protection of the environment and preservation of the resources for next generations. In this study, it has been attempted to analyze the concept of sustainable architecture in addition to investigate the effect of using renewable resources as a link between architecture and environment protection, so that positive step can be taken to decrease energy consumption in line with the environment. The most important studied buildings can be hotels and centers encountering tourists.
Key words: architecture sustainability, sustainable hotels, energy sustainability, sustainable tourism
Nowadays, population rise, increased public commuting, advancement of science and technologies, increased leisure time and separation of work and leisure time have led to increased rate of traveling and tourism. The countries of the words have found out that paying attention to tourism industry and development of the industry can lead to gain huge revenues. Tourism industry can be called as one of the most prospered economic activities of the world, so that it can be the income-gaining source of the world after oil and automotive industry. Tourism can be considered as one of the most effective phenomena and products of modernity. In the modern life, tourism has been changed into a fundamental need for humankind. Such need can be called as need prior to material needs such as eating, drinking and safety for the modern and postmodern human based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (Robins, 2002) and such need in line with needs beyond material needs such as emotion, friendship, respecting others and the transcendental needs causing human self-actualization. Tourism is a multidimensional and trans-sectional phenomenon, which has played key role in development of regions and tourism intentions as a profitable economic activity from the beginning of its advent. Tourism, as a modern phenomenon, can be fundamentally an economic activity with individual-social motivations with different positive and negative environmental, social-cultural effects. By itself, tourism can guarantee wide system of social relations and interactions and takes benefit of mechanisms, which try to meet needs of passengers in places other than their living places through supplying products and services. Therefore, from systematic perspective, tourism can be referred as a set of interrelated elements and sectors moving as a whole to achieve special goals. At the current age, in addition to organizing and directing the plans, considering the relations and sensitivities of sustainable development and controlling the impacts of tourism have been changed into one of the most underlying functions of tourism (Gartner and Hawkins). Therefore, it could be mentioned that the process of tourism industry management should make organization, direction and decision making among the different activities of the industry in different levels (Heydari Chiyaneh, 2002). Tourism is one the modern arenas and fields, which is very important because of economic importance on one hand and because of its social and cultural effects on the other hand. Sustainable architecture (green architecture) can be regarded as one of the most underlying strategies of development. in this strategy, the necessities presented to attract tourism and increased revenue have created the requirement of academic use of tourism and ecotourism attractions affecting tourism. Sustainable development for tourism should help optimization of economic advantages, protection of the environment through improvement of living quality of residents and pave the way to provide high-quality experience for the tourists. According to the definition of World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), sustainable development of tourism is the process that is relevant to living quality of hosts, supplying demand of the tourists and protection of the natural resources and human resources. Tourism sustainable development shows a displacement from traditional neoclassic economic approaches in field of tourism towards a systematic approach, in which not only market needs are focused, but also the requirements of the society and natural environment are also emphasized.
The method applied in this study is library method in field of necessity of investment in tourism industry and the regulations of hotel designation. Moreover, the study has attempted to search in internet and investigate the existing samples around the world to complete the discussion. Based on the obtained data, along with the library and field studies, the designation criteria have been determined.
Sustainability means stability, durability and something that remains fixed and stable. Sustainable phenomena can be caused by durability of the pattern, method or system of the phenomena during the long time; meaning that the original phenomenon can’t remain in this case with all material and nonmaterial features of that, but also it is repeated in each period based on unit and fixed pattern and is continued through this. In such repetition process, it can be modified and it tries to match itself with surrounding conditions in each period. Sustainability in field of development is fundamental deformation in the method of living, thinking, production and consumption and a method for social and cultural interaction of people. In fact, it refers to fundamental subjective deformation. Sustainability in development can be caused by evolution of thoughts. Bromean says that the debate, sustainable development has no unit solution. Every country tends to find fit development in framework of its ecosystem and other features of its ecosystem based on context of sustainability. Hence, there is no unit concept of sustainable development no at least. Hence, it would be better to imagine the emerging perspective.
4.Definition of hotel
Hotel refers to a center that provides favorable services in relation to food and hospitalization of guests. The fundamental principles of supplying food, house and hospitalization of guests and passengers are same in all regions. The methods and facilities used to provide existence of hotel have been changed a lot and have caused hotel creation and significant difference of this center with other hospitalization centers such as inn, Motel, Travel hut, Guesthouse, Various hotel types like seafarers' hotels. There is no standard plan for hotel facilities. Number of personnel and their responsibilities can be determined based on factors such as type, size and the dependence of the hotel on a hotel chain, ability of management team and type of ownership. In small hotels, major part of activities can be integrated to take them by one person. In larger hotels, number of personnel is more than small ones and they are more skilled to provide better services for the guests. Hence, a hotel is a collection of different performances with various, entertaining, sport, administrative and servicing nature and a subject in designation that can be classified in the group that responsiveness to performance of the complex can be the main priority of them. On the other hand, criterion elements of a city can be the hotels and the aesthetics is as much as important of function. Every building should be designed and built in such way that its need to fossil fuel is minimized. Necessity of accepting the principles in past ages is undoubtedly based on the manner of constructions. Such principle in classic architecture and methods may be forgotten only because of high variety of new technologies and materials in contemporary age. This time, buildings have changed the environment based on needs of users by applying various materials and with different combinations of them. It is reasonable to refer to the theory of Integrated Biotechnology Theory, which is originated in providing shelter to be safe against coldness or providing cool place for people to live. For this reason and because of other factors, people used to build their buildings near each other for mutual advantages. Buildings made in interaction with local climate and with the aim of decreasing dependence on fossil fuel include different experiences from today’s conventional apartments; hence, they can be regarded as uncompleted efforts to create green architecture.
5.Principle of decreased use of new resources
Every building should be designed in such way that can minimize use of new resources and can provide another resource to create other structures at the end of its lifetime. Although orientation of the principles, same as other principles, is towards new buildings; it should be mentioned that majority of existing resources of the world have been applied in the current manmade environment. Therefore, repairing and enhancement of the situation of the existing buildings to decrease environmental impacts is an issue with same importance of creation of new structures. It should be noted that there are not sufficient resources to create manmade environments at the world, so that some new resources can be used to renovate each generation of buildings. Such reuse of resources can be formed in the way of using recycled materials or recycled spaces. Recycling buildings and the elements in them can be a part of architecture history. In most cases that access to new resources is minimized, methods can be discovered, by which buildings built for a single purpose can be used for other purposes. However, some essential changes can change the main form of the structure. This issue can be a disaster for those who are interested in permanent protection of the buildings and the question here is that whether a building should remain intact because it has had a valuable use previously or it should be repaired to preserve its efficiency? A green process may believe that this can be possible just based on existing resources. If the required resources to change a building are less than resources needed for destruction and restoration, these changes should be welcomed. However, this cannot result in disrespect of historical important of the structure. Moreover, the structures may have additional values, which need more attentions. The problems can be appeared with more contradictions in field of changing existing buildings to prepare them to match with new needs, especially in field of improvement of status of the buildings in terms of performance and function, which may result in change in its appearance. Change in some buildings for new uses can cause special costs and problems. However, the advantages caused by reuse of these large buildings alongside and inside an urban space can overcome the problems and costs. Renovation of existing buildings in small and big cities can also cause protection of applied resources for destruction and restoration of buildings and ultimately, prevention of destruction of the society .
Sustainable development is such development that meets needs of the present time without endangering next generations to meet their needs. In this definition, two key concepts are existed: the concept of “needs”, especially fundamental needs of the poor world based on priority and “restriction”, which is imposed on environmental capabilities to achieve the present and future needs by the mediation of technology and social organization (Nasiri, 2016). Based on another definition, this is a kind of development to guarantee that using the environment and the resources at the present can cause no damage for the next generation (Brundtland, 2006). In another definition presented by Amini Amir sustainable development, it is mentioned that sustainable development is same development in basis and concept of development and is the result of sustainable, continuous, and pervasive comprehensive process, which encompasses all economic, social and cultural aspects of a society or nation (www.ecentralChingeClimate.com ). In Earth Summit, about 152 countries agreed with following the sustainable development. An important goal was decreasing the emission of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Decreased energy consumption in buildings could play key role in achieving this goals.
Sustainable architecture as a subset of sustainable design can be considered as one of the most underlying processes of the contemporary age, which can be logical reaction to the problems of the age of industry. For example, 57% of fuel reservoirs are used in buildings and this can lead to environmental crisis. Therefore, necessity of creation and development of sustainability in architecture can be properly observed.
The principles of sustainable architecture, same as other subjects of architecture have special principles and regulations and it includes eight steps: a) saving resources b) designing o return to lifecycle c) designing for manmade environment. The principles pay attention to proper utilization of renewable energies and resources like fossil fuels to decrease consumption on one hand and controlling optimized use of natural resources as renewable resources on the other hand (Hashemi and Karimi, 2015).
8.Analysis of world experiences
The process of changing into an eco-hotel (green hotel)
Green hotel refers to the hotels with more adaptability with the environment and the nature and with least negative effects on the environment. The process of changing into an eco-hotel (green hotel) can include following steps:
employing and taking benefit of experts of the environment; establishment of environment committee; assessment of existing status of hotel; providing effective executive plans; providing the required practices for employees for required cooperation; management of proper implementation of plans and meeting the weaknesses; waste management (decreased amount of waste, recycling); green space; energy management
Sustainable tourism that is originated in sustainable development shows that tourism has the ability to process and develop the strategies to achieve sustainable development in field of tourism and sing sustainable energies (renewable energies). The concept of sustainable development is an underlying change in understanding the relationship between human and natural environment and the interaction of people. This issue is in contradiction with the past age and this is based on environmental, social and economic issues. It should be mentioned that sustainable development and sustainable architecture emphasize protection of the environment with change their attitude towards the nature based on their initial rituals. However, provided strategies and what is manifested today in the manmade environment is a kind of discrete encountering separated from the natural environment and just pays attention to preserve that for the next generations. Although the principles of sustainable architecture include wide range of using the simplest methods to the most complicated modern technologies, the problem is adequacy of the method and adjusting that with social and cultural contexts of people and users of the environment. Green buildings are known as buildings with least negative effects on the environment. Today, the architects should try to use the taste and choice of people despite to the regulations, which use the market taste. In this way, architects should be able to use green architecture as the today’s decorations and this is depended on using taste of architect in designation of green buildings just same as different European, English and American architects who emphasize learning and using local and green architecture (Simon Bell, 2003, Hamshahri Online, 2009):